EOD-Pathologic Extension--Prostate: If there is residual tumor in the distal urethra on prostatectomy, does that mean there is distal urethral margin involvement? See discussion.
2/98 Prostate bx: Right apex, right mid and right base positive for adenocarcinoma.
6/1/98 Radical retropubic prostatectomy w/ bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection. Pathology: Residual adenocarcinoma in distal urethra, right lateral sections and posterior lobe. Right apical margin, other margins, seminal vesicles, and 7 pelvic LN negative for malignancy.
For cases diagnosed 1998-2003:
For the example above, code the EOD-Pathologic Extension field to 34 [extending to apex] because most of the right side is involved.
The pathology report says all margins are free. The comment on residual tumor in the urethra, meant the first surgery did not completely remove tumor tissue from the urethra, it does not mean that tissue is at the margin.
Grade, Differentiation--Lymphoma: What code is used to represent this field when the only grade/differentiation given is "low grade", "intermediate grade" or "high grade"?
Code the Grade, Differentiation field to 9 [cell type not determined, not stated or not applicable]. For lymphomas, do not code the descriptions "high grade," "low grade," and "intermediate grade" in the Grade, Differentiation field. These terms refer to categories in the Working Formulation and not to histologic grade for lymphoma histologies.
Generally, for histologies other than Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the Grade, Differentiation field is coded to 2 [low grade], 3 [intermediate grade] and 4 [high grade] for most cancers.
EOD-Clinical Extension--Prostate: For prostate cancer, can an elevated PSA be used to code metastasis? See discussion.
5/31/98 PE: 30 gm prostate with nodularity, suspicious for CA.
Final diagnosis: Stage D Ca of prostate with mets, NOS
PTA IVP: Normal collecting system
5/11/98 CXR: NED
PSA 86.3 Suggestive of prostate Ca per MD
5/13/98 TURP and bilat. orchiectomy: Plan was to perform orchiectomy as treatment of choice if biopsy was positive. Appears MD feels that the patient has mets, NOS based on the elevated PSA.
5/13/98 TURP Adenocarcinoma, PD
For cases diagnosed 1998-2003, do not code the EOD-Clinical Extension field based on elevated PSA alone. If a recognized practitioner states that there is metastasis, then metastasis should be coded.
In this case, code the EOD-Clinical Extension field to 85 [Metastasis] because it is Stage D. But if you had D1 or D2 staging based on the involvement of lymph nodes, then that involvement would be coded under EOD lymph nodes and not under the clinical extension field.
Primary Site--Esophagus: What is the difference between C15.5 [Lower third of esophagus] and C15.2 [Abdominal esophagus]?
These descriptions represent the use of two different ways the esophagus can be divided anatomically. The two different systems used are illustrated in the SEER Self Instruction Manual for Tumor Registrars: Book 4. Assign the primary site code that describes the location of the tumor in the same way the tumor's location is described in the medical record.
Extension/Ambiguous terminology: How should the terms "entrapped by tumor" and "encased by tumor" be interpreted when coding these fields?
Each case must be reviewed in its entirety to determine the appropriate coding of these fields. However, in general the terms "entrapped" and "encased" should NOT be interpreted as involvement unless there is other clinical or pathologic evidence to support involvement.
EOD-Size of Primary Tumor--Melanoma: How do you code tumor size for a melanoma diagnosed by a positive lymph node biopsy when the primary site is coded C44.9 because no primary site was identified? See discussion.
Should the size be 000 because no primary was found or 999 for unknown?
For cases diagnosed 1998-2003:
Code the EOD-Size of Primary Tumor field to 000 [No mass; no tumor found] when primary site is coded to C449.
Surgery of Primary Site--Skin: Explain the difference between code 30 and code 45.
Code 30 [Biopsy of primary tumor followed by a gross excision of the lesion]
Code 45 [Wide excision or re-excision of lesion or minor (local) amputation with margins more than 1 cm, NOS. Margins MUST be microscopically negative.]
For cases diagnosed 1/1/2003 and after: Code 30 represents a biopsy or excision in which the margins of excision are less than 1 cm or the margins are unknown. Code 45 represents a wide excision in which it is known that the margins of excision are greater than 1 cm.
First Course Treatment: If the patient receives no treatment at the time of diagnosis (either because it is not recommended or because the patient refused treatment at that time) but treatment is later instituted after disease progression, should this treatment be coded as part of the first course of treatment?
The SEER rules changed in 1998 regarding what constitutes First Course of Cancer-Directed Therapy.
For cases diagnosed on or after 1/1/98: The First Course of Cancer-Directed Therapy fields will all be coded to 0 [None] for these types of cases. The documented disease progression would stop the timeframe for inclusion of any treatment to be part of first course of therapy.