Focus, focal, and foci are variations of the same word. Focus (noun) describes an area or point of disease, either grossly or microscopically. Focal (adjective) relates to the area/focus of disease; an example is a prostate with focal adenocarcinoma. This means that the majority of the prostate is benign and the adenocarcinoma is confined to one small area/point. Foci (plural) describe more than one area/focus of disease. A prostate with foci of adenocarcinoma means the disease is multifocal (several areas/points of disease).
Chips are microscopic amounts of either tissue or tumor. A pathologist might examine several chips of prostate tissue, one of which contains a focus of adenocarcinoma.
Terminology: Do focus, focal, foci and chips mean the same thing?
1. C44.9 [Skin, NOS] as the default value when lesions develop simultaneously in skin and non-skin areas.
2. C07.9 [Parotid gland]
3. C44.9 [Skin, NOS] as the default value when there is no mention of lesions in the skin or other primary site.
Edward Klatt states in Practical AIDS Pathology, "...Visceral Kaposi (involving one or more internal organ sites) is also present in three-fourths of cases, but may not be diagnosed prior to autopsy. Visceral involvement frequently includes the lung, lymph nodes and gastro-intestinal tract."
1. KS developed initially as a lesion in the oral cavity and followed by the appearance of skin lesions.
2. KS found in a resected parotid gland with metastasis to the parotid gland lymph node. No skin lesions identified.
3. KS discovered in a biopsied 3 cm axillary lymph node. Clinically, the patient had hepatosplenomegaly, ascites, and extensive mesenteric lymph nodes. (No mention of skin.)
Primary Site--Kaposi Sarcoma: Would the following Kaposi primaries be examples of cases not coded to skin for primary site? See discussion.
Code the EOD-Pathologic Review of Number of Regional Lymph Nodes Positive and Examined fields to 99 99 for Kaposi cases that present systemically and for those that present in more than one site (which includes cases with more than one skin subsite involved at diagnosis). There are no "regional" lymph nodes for such cases. This represents a majority of currently diagnosed Kaposi cases. However, for localized Kaposi cases, you can count the number of regional lymph nodes positive and examined if the primary site selected has a regional lymph node chain(s) associated with it (e.g., soft palate, hard palate, or a skin subsite).
For cases diagnosed 1/1/2003 and after: Code the groin mass excision in the Surgical Procedure of Other Site field to 1 [Non-primary surgical procedure performed; Non-primary surgical resection to other site(s), unknown if whether the site(s) is regional or distant].
EOD-Pathologic Review of Number of Regional Lymph Nodes Positive and Examined/Surgical Procedure of Other Site--Kaposi Sarcoma: How do you code these fields for a groin mass excision containing 4 lymph nodes for a Kaposi sarcoma case that presented with multiple skin lesions?
Yes. Code the EOD-Extension field to 72 [malignant pleural effusion, pleural effusion, NOS]. Pleural effusion is mentioned as being present.
CT scan: "3 cm mass left upper lobe of lung. Some pleural fluid in both posterior gutters. Large matted hilar lymph nodes, left. Some narrowing left upper bronchus by this adenopathy. Squamous cell ca lung with mets to left hilar lymph nodes, most likely possibility." Would you code extension to 72 [malignant pleural effusion; pleural effusion, NOS]?
EOD-Extension--Lung: Should the phrase "some pleural fluid in both posterior gutters" be interpreted as pleural effusion for lung primaries? See discussion.
Code the EOD-Size of Primary Tumor field as follows:
Example 1: Code to 000 [No mass, no tumor found, no Paget disease] when a tumor of a stated primary site is not found, but the tumor has metastasized.
Example 2: Code to 997 [Paget disease of nipple with no demonstrable tumor] if there is no underlying tumor and the patient presents with Paget of the breast.
Example 3: Code to 999 [Size not stated] when no size of tumor is given on the pathology report. Do not use 000 in the size field when a tumor is not visible on physical exam or by imaging, but tumor is found microscopically.
Example 1: Ductal carcinoma found in axillary lymph nodes. No tumor found in breast on physical exam or by pathological exam of the breast, but physician states that the breast is definitely the primary site.
Example 2: Paget disease for breast carcinoma with no underlying tumor.
Example 3: Inspection of the cervix shows no visible tumor; biopsy of the cervix reveals CIN III or squamous cell carcinoma, either invasive or in situ.
EOD-Size of Primary Tumor--Breast/Cervix: When coding tumor size, when do you use 997 for breast cases and 000 versus 999 for breast and other primaries? See discussion.
Code the EOD-Extension field to 12 [Myometrium, inner half] which represents the extension you know. In this particular case, there was no clinical evidence of extension outside the corpus. As long as the surgery was not performed because of disease progression, use information from the surgery to code EOD extension.
EOD-Extension--Corpus Uteri: What code is used to represent this field for a corpus primary (sounding 8 cm or less in length) treated with radiation prior to a hysterectomy that pathologically showed superficial myometrial invasion? Is it possible that the invasion could have been more extensive prior to the radiation treatment?
Code the EOD-Extension field for both cases to 40 [Tumor limited to larynx WITH vocal cord fixation]. Code 35 [Impaired vocal cord mobility] implies that mobility is diminished in strength and/or quality but is not rigid. Impaired mobility is a T2 tumor. Because the second case is T3, the physician implies he/she is using the term "immobility" to describe complete fixation.
1. The tumor is fixed, the arytenoid on left side is fixed and the right arytenoid is partially fixed. Palpation of the tumor reveals it to be fixed in the larynx. T3 N0 M0 Stage III.
2. Erythema and swelling of right false cord with bulging and immobility. Left cord moves normally. T3 N0 M0 Stage III.
EOD-Extension--Head & Neck (Larynx): When "fixed" is stated for a larynx primary does it specifically have to say that it is the vocal cord that is fixed? Are the terms "fixed" and "immobile" synonymous? Should these cases be coded to 40 rather than 35? See discussion.
Count as 2 primaries when a subsequent malignant breast tumor is diagnosed more than 2 months later unless stated to be a recurrence. For cases diagnosed after 1/1/94, an in situ followed by an invasive breast cancer is counted as two primaries even if stated to be a recurrence.
For tumors diagnosed 2007 or later, refer to the MP/H rules. If there are still questions about how this type of tumor should be coded, submit a new question to SINQ and include the difficulties you are encountering in applying the MP/H rules.
Multiple Primaries (Pre-2007)--Breast: When a breast cancer is treated with less than a total mastectomy and more than 2 months later a tumor of the same histology is diagnosed in the same breast with no statement of "recurrence," is this a new primary?
For cases diagnosed 1/1/2003 and after: Code the Surgery of Primary Site field to 52 [Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy WITH hysterectomy].
Surgery of Primary Site--Ovary: What code is used to represent this field when a patient has a history of a previous organ removal and has additional surgery/organ removal for a present cancer (e.g., History of a 1984 hysterectomy and in 2003 has ovarian primary treated with BSO)?
Yes. Code the Date of Diagnosis field to the date of the scan. The physician's clinical impression upon reviewing the earlier scan, is that the malignancy was confirmed by the scan. If there is a medical review of a previous scan that indicates the patient had a malignancy at an earlier date, then the earlier date is the date of diagnosis, i.e., the date is back-dated.
Date of Diagnosis: If a clinician states his current diagnosis of malignancy is based on a CT scan done at an early date that contained a diagnosis of only "neoplasm" or "worrisome for carcinoma" should the date of diagnosis be the date of the scan?