#1: Multiple primaries
#2: Heme & Lymphoid Neoplasms
Source 1: Heme & Lymphoid Manual and Database
Notes: September 2020; Effective with Cases Diagnosed 1/1/2010 and Forward
Multiple primaries--Heme and Lymphoid Neoplasms: Is a patient with peripheral blood initially showing chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), lymph node biopsy showing granulocytic sarcoma (9930/3), and bone marrow biopsy showing acute myeloid leukemia (AML) one or two primaries? See Discussion.
1. 12/11/2020 Peripheral blood revealing what was thought to be chronic myelogenous leukemia BCR/ABL1 positive (9875/3). Patient was started on Hydrea while waiting for further tests on 12/12/2020.
2. 12/14/2020 Lymph node biopsy showed granulocytic sarcoma (9930/3), but flow cytometry states it is similar to that seen in the patient’s peripheral blood and is consistent with nodal involvement by myeloblasts.
3. 12/15/2020 Bone marrow biopsy reads acute myeloid leukemia (9861/3), likely arising from BCR/ABL1 positive chronic myeloid leukemia. There is a note on this pathology from medical oncologist that says: This will dramatically change the course of his treatment, likely with a TKI.
4. 12/17/2020 Sprycel started. Patient was weaned off Hydrea.
According to Rule M3, abstract a single primary when a sarcoma is diagnosed simultaneously or after a leukemia of the same lineage. It lists 9930/3 when simultaneously (or after) with 9861/3. Technically, it was two days before, but I feel like I should and could count that as simultaneously because of Note 1 that says: These sarcomas are solid manifestations of the associated leukemia. For example, when acute myeloid leukemia and myeloid sarcoma are diagnosed simultaneously, the myeloid sarcoma is the result of myeloid cells migrating from the bone marrow or blood into tissue. It is part of the disease process for the acute leukemia. Also, the providers never mention granulocytic sarcoma
Based on that, I think that #2 & #3 above are the same primary, which would be acute myeloid leukemia (9861/3).
Per the hematopoietic database, 9875/3 transforms to 9861/3. Therefore, Rule M8 is confusing with the “only one" biopsy. Does this rule apply because the 9875/3 was from peripheral blood only? But peripheral blood is coded in Diagnostic Confirmation as histology.
Rule M9 reads: The two diagnoses are likely the result of an ongoing diagnostic work-up. The later diagnosis is usually based on all of the test results and correlated with any clinical information. Because that is truly what I think is happening here though that rule states there is no available documentation. If you do not have any documentation, how would you know you are dealing with a chronic and an acute diagnosis?
M10 does not apply.
According to Rule M11, abstract as multiple primaries when both a chronic and an acute neoplasm are diagnosed simultaneously or within 21 days and there is documentation of two biopsies. The chronic myelogenous leukemia only had peripheral blood and not a bone marrow, lymph node or tissue, but that is counted as positive histology in diagnostic confirmation, but I don’t know if that is kept as a separate field/thought. I would not code a peripheral blood smear as with a surgical code or a surgical diagnostic and staging procedure code, so maybe that is what I should be thinking about and therefore would probably say Rule M8 and one primary.
This is one primary based on Rule M3. Abstract as a single primary site for the granulocytic sarcoma and AML since they are both evaluating the blood/bone marrow, which are counted as one site. To count them twice would result in over counting primaries.
For Rule M9: This would not apply to your situation since you do have information on both the CML and the AML. We had to write in this rule for cases where you do not always have the information available.
In terms of the peripheral blood versus actually biopsy: In this case, do not count the peripheral blood as a separate site. Rule M8 does fit your case, coding this as the AML and having this as one primary.