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Report Produced: 03/29/2023 05:26 AM

Report Question ID (Ascending) Question Discussion Answer

Mets at Diagnosis Fields/Primary Site--Lymph Nodes:  How are the Mets at Diagnosis fields coded when the metastatic adenocarcinoma involves only one lymph node area and the primary site is unknown?  See Discussion.

In 2018, patient has lymph node metastasis confined to left retroperitoneal area; core biopsy was done which showed metastatic adenocarcinoma, unknown primary site. There are no other sites of disease found.  Should I code Mets at Diagnosis--Distant Lymph Node(s) as 1, and the others such as bone and lung as 0?

In a situation like this with one area of metastatic involvement and an unknown primary, if there is no further information, we advise that the metastasis are "regional" until/unless proven otherwise. With this in mind, code the Mets at Diagnosis fields as 0, including the Mets at Diagnosis--Distant Lymph Node(s). This case should continue to be worked up to identify the primary site. If a primary site is identified later, update the abstract accordingly. In the meantime, use text fields to describe the situation.


EOD 2018/Summary Stage 2018--Intrahepatic Bile Duct:  How should Extent of Disease (EOD) Primary Tumor (PT) be coded for invasion of or into (but not through) the visceral peritoneum for an intrahepatic bile duct primary?  See Discussion.

Invasion of the visceral peritoneum is Regional (code 2) in Summary Stage.  EOD PT code 500 is for invasion BEYOND the visceral peritoneum into adjacent connective tissues, and maps to T3 and Regional Summary Stage, but that code seems too extensive. All lower EOD codes map to Localized Summary Stage.

Assign code 500 for EOD Primary Tumor for now.

We have confirmed with AJCC that "invasion of" but not "through" the visceral peritoneum maps to a T2 and not T3. Involvement of the visceral peritoneum for Summary Stage is Regional and does not make a distinction between "invasion of" or "invasion through." Any involvement of the visceral peritoneum is regional.

To correct this situation would require a new code, which would derive a T2/RE. That code will be added to the updates for 2023.

Code 500 will derive the appropriate Summary Stage of 2 (Regional). We are aware that this will derive the incorrect T; however, there is no work around at this time that will derive the correct T and Summary Stage, so we are defaulting to deriving the correct Summary Stage.


Solid Tumor Rules (2018/2021)/Histology--Breast:  How is histology coded for a diagnosis of invasive mammary neuroendocrine tumor (NET), grade 2/3? See Discussion.

Table 3 (Breast Equivalent Terms and Definitions) lists “Neuroendocrine tumor, well-differentiated” of the breast as histology 8246/3. There is no entry for a grade 2 neuroendocrine tumor of the breast in Table 3.  

The pathologist did not indicate the neuroendocrine tumor was poorly differentiated (or it would otherwise be a small cell carcinoma). The pathologist noted “By current WHO criteria, this tumor is characteristic of a mammary neuroendocrine tumor, grade 2.  These invasive tumors have similar prognostic and predictive features of invasive ductal carcinoma of the same grade and stage.”

Assign code 8249/3, neuroendocrine tumor, grade 2 based on the pathologist statement of mammary neuroendocrine tumor grade 2.  According to WHO Classification of Tumors of the Breast, 5th edition, neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is an invasive tumor characterized by low/intermediate grade.

If the histology term is not listed in the Solid Tumor rules, the instructions state to also check ICD-O and updates. Per ICD-O, NET, grade 2 is coded 8249/3. Breast Table 3 will be updated for 2023.


Solid Tumor Rules (2018/2021)/Multiple Primaries--Corpus Uteri:  How many primaries should be reported when a hysterectomy identifies primary endometrial carcinosarcoma (8980/3) and the endometrium has a background of endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) (8380/2)? A tumor size is provided for the carcinosarcoma, but not the background EIN.

Patient was diagnosed with carcinosarcoma of Mullerian origin on omental/pelvic biopsies in March 2021. First course treatment was neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by July 2021 resection showing residual primary endometrial carcinosarcoma with cervical stromal invasion and involvement of bilateral tubes/ovaries, omentum, and mesenteric nodule. Additional findings included endometrium with background endometroid intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN).

Abstract this case as a single primary and code histology as carcinosarcoma (8980/3). The carcinosarcoma is intermixed with the EIN making this a single primary coded to the invasive histology. EIN is a precursor of endometrial carcinoma in the WHO Classification of Female Genital Tumors, 5th edition. Carcinosarcoma of the uterus is described in the literature as an aggressive variant of endometrial carcinoma characterized by unusual histologic features including discrete malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components (carcinoma and sarcoma).


Update to Current Manual/Neoadjuvant Therapy--Pancreas:  How are the neoadjuvant items coded for a patient who has unresectable pancreatic cancer and starts chemotherapy but will be evaluated after X cycles to see if patient may become a surgical candidate?

Assign the neoadjuvant therapy data items as if the patient had neoadjuvant therapy.  Neoadjuvant Therapy data item would be coded either code 1 or 2 depending on whether the chemotherapy was completed or not. In this case, they are a surgical candidate by having the chemotherapy with the plan from the beginning to evaluate the chemotherapy after X cycles to see if surgery can be performed. After the patient is evaluated, update the abstract as needed.


Reportability:  What American College of Radiology Reporting and Data Systems (RADS) can be used to determine reportability?  See Discussion.

LI-RADS (liver), PI-RADS (prostate), and TI-RADS (thyroid) can be used to determine reportability. BI-RADS (breast) and Lung-RADS cannot be used to determine reportability. Can these systems below to determine reportability?

C-RADS (from CT colonography)

NI-RADS (head & neck)

O-RADS (ovarian-adnexal)

The following cancer cases are reportable unless there is information to the contrary.

–Liver cases with an LI-RADS category LR-4 (reportable since 2021) or LR-5 (reportable since 2016)

–Prostate cases with a PI-RADS category 4 or 5 (reportable since 2017)

The following are not reportable without additional information.

–Breast cases designated BI-RADS 4, 4A, 4B, 4C or BI-RADS 5

–Lung cases designated Lung-RADS 4A," 4B, or 4X

–Liver cases based only on an LI-RADS category of LR-3

–Colon cases with only C-RADS information (C-RADS category C4 is not reportable by itself)

–Head and Neck cases with only NI-RADS information (NI-RADS category 3 is not reportable by itself)

–Ovarian or fallopian tube cases with only O-RADS information (none of the O-RADS categories are reportable without additional information)

–Thyroid cases with only TI-RADS information (none of the TI-RADS categories are reportable without additional information)


Reportability/Brain and CNS:  Is a 2021 case of ecchordosis physaliphora (lesion within the prepontine cistern) on brain MRI reportable?

Ecchordosis physaliphora is not reportable.


First Course Therapy/Neoadjuvant Treatment:  How are Neoadjuvant Therapy--Clinical Response and Neoadjuvant Therapy--Treatment Effect coded when the neoadjuvant therapy was not completed? Does the entire course of neoadjuvant therapy need to be completed before we can code these fields? See Discussion.

Example: The neoadjuvant therapy was started, the patient progressed, the treatment plan was altered, and a new course of systemic therapy was started; surgery was cancelled.

01/25/21 Bile duct brushing: Malignant cells present, adenocarcinoma

01/26/21 Surgical oncology consult: Currently unresectable; recommend neoadjuvant chemo

02/22/21-3/29/21 Neoadjuvant Gemzar & Abraxane, two cycles, discontinued due to disease progression

04/17/21 Surgical oncology re-eval: CT positive for disease progression, need to change Rx

04/26/21 Second change of treatment due to progression: Irinotecan, Oxaliplatin, and 5FU

07/16/21 Surgical oncology re-eval: Unresectable, advise 4-6 months of chemo followed by radiation

Assign code 3 (Progressive disease (PD)(per managing/treating physician statement) for Neoadjuvant Treatment--Clinical Response and code 7 (Neoadjuvant therapy completed and planned surgical resection not performed) for Neoadjuvant Treatment--Treatment Effect. These are the best choices under the circumstances. Use text fields to record the details.


Solid Tumor Rules (2018/2021)/Multiple Primaries--Skin Cancer:  How many primaries are assigned for sebaceous carcinomas using the Solid Tumor/Multiple Primaries/Histology Rules?  Does this scenario represent eight separate primaries?  See Discussion.


4/15/2018:  Right abdominal wall mass excision: infiltrating sebaceous carcinoma.  Noted to have a history of Muir-Torre/Lynch syndrome.

1/21/2019:  Two left upper back mass excisions and two lower back (laterality not specified) mass excisions: infiltrating sebaceous carcinomas

8/7/2019:  Excision of multiple sebaceous carcinomas from the right posterior back, left posterior thigh, left anterior abdominal wall, left anterior thigh, right scrotum, right lower abdominal fold, all positive for sebaceous carcinoma on pathology report

9/30/2020:  Right gluteal mass, left gluteal mass, back (NOS) excisions: sebaceous carcinomas.  

10/14/2020:  Right back excision: sebaceous carcinoma. Op note:  History of Lynch syndrome with multiple sebaceous carcinomas, recurrent back mass, site of prior mass resection.

10/18/2021:  Right thigh excision: sebaceous carcinoma

Proposed primaries using MP/H Other Sites Rules

#1:       4/15/2018:  C445-1

#2:       1/21/2019:  C445-2, separate from #1 per M8, same as 1/21/19 C445-9 per M18

#3:       8/7/2019:  C445-1, separate from #1 per M10, separate from #2 per M8

#4:       8/7/2019:  C447-2, separate from #1 & #3 per M8, separate from #2 per M12

#5:       8/7/2019:  C632, separate from #1 per M10, separate from #2-#4 per M11

#6:       9/30/2020:  C445-2, separate from #1 & #3 per M8, separate from #2, #4 & #5 per M10

#7:       9/30/2020:  C445-1, separate from #2, #4 & #6 per M8, separate from #1, #3 & #5 per M10; I do not think the back, NOS (C445-9) is a new primary per M18.

#8:       10/18/2021:  C447-1, separate from #2, #4 & #6 per M8, separate from #1, #3, #5 & #7 per M10

Assign the number of primaries following the Other Sites Solid Tumor Rules.  Based on sites, laterality and or timing there are 8 primaries.  This is similar to SINQ 20061112 that advised to follow the Multiple Primaries/Histology rules for sebaceous carcinoma.  According to the WHO Classification of Skin Tumors, 5th edition, there is a 30-40% risk of local tumor recurrence, and 20-25% risk of distant metastasis.  In only one instance did a physician refer this as a recurrence in the available notes. 


Solid Tumor Rules (2022)/Histology--Bladder:  Can the term configuration be used to code the more specific histology for bladder primaries diagnosed 2022 and later? See Discussion.

In the September 2021 Urinary Sites Solid Tumor Rules update, the term configuration was removed from the “DO NOT CODE histology when described as” list. However, it was not added as a term that can be used to code the more specific histology for urinary tumors.

Can configuration be used to code the more specific histology 8130 (papillary urothelial carcinoma) when the diagnosis is urothelial carcinoma, tumor configuration: papillary?

Beginning with cases diagnosed 1/1/2022, the term "configuration" can be used to code histology for urinary sites only. At the request of the AJCC urinary experts, the instructions were changed to allow configuration to be used to code histology.