Statistics at a Glance

At a Glance

Estimated New Cases in 2020 32,270

% of All New Cancer Cases 1.8%

Estimated Deaths in 2020 12,830

% of All Cancer Deaths 2.1%

5-Year
Relative Survival

53.9% 2010–2016
Year Rate of New Cases — SEER 9 Rate of New Cases — SEER 13 Death Rate — U.S. 5-Year Relative Survival — SEER 9
Observed Modeled Trend Observed Modeled Trend Observed Modeled Trend Observed Modeled Trend
1975 4.91 4.97 - - 2.94 3.05 26.54% 25.11%
1976 5.02 5.00 - - 3.10 3.09 23.66% 25.46%
1977 5.06 5.04 - - 3.13 3.13 23.97% 25.81%
1978 4.75 5.08 - - 3.17 3.18 26.89% 26.17%
1979 4.89 5.12 - - 3.26 3.22 25.45% 26.52%
1980 4.79 5.15 - - 3.27 3.27 26.01% 26.88%
1981 5.03 5.19 - - 3.29 3.32 27.14% 27.23%
1982 5.30 5.23 - - 3.38 3.36 28.55% 27.59%
1983 5.31 5.27 - - 3.44 3.41 27.67% 27.95%
1984 5.41 5.31 - - 3.47 3.46 26.44% 28.31%
1985 5.23 5.35 - - 3.58 3.51 27.41% 28.67%
1986 5.34 5.39 - - 3.61 3.56 28.71% 29.03%
1987 5.93 5.43 - - 3.61 3.61 27.57% 29.39%
1988 5.34 5.47 - - 3.63 3.66 28.83% 29.76%
1989 5.44 5.51 - - 3.70 3.72 25.71% 30.12%
1990 5.67 5.55 - - 3.80 3.77 29.91% 30.49%
1991 6.05 5.59 - - 3.87 3.82 31.21% 30.85%
1992 5.96 5.63 5.81 5.72 3.80 3.88 27.35% 31.22%
1993 5.60 5.68 5.68 5.74 3.96 3.93 31.19% 31.59%
1994 5.74 5.72 5.71 5.76 3.97 3.99 30.84% 31.95%
1995 5.76 5.76 5.61 5.78 3.98 3.96 33.49% 32.32%
1996 5.84 5.80 5.93 5.81 3.91 3.93 31.96% 32.69%
1997 6.15 5.85 6.06 5.83 3.90 3.91 31.55% 33.06%
1998 5.99 5.89 5.80 5.85 3.83 3.88 34.57% 33.43%
1999 5.65 5.93 5.68 5.87 3.84 3.85 32.10% 33.80%
2000 6.16 5.98 6.00 5.89 3.83 3.83 34.66% 35.60%
2001 5.96 6.02 5.82 5.92 3.80 3.80 37.79% 37.41%
2002 6.09 6.07 5.90 5.94 3.81 3.78 40.47% 39.21%
2003 5.94 6.11 5.99 5.96 3.72 3.70 42.64% 41.01%
2004 6.00 6.16 6.08 5.98 3.58 3.63 45.68% 42.80%
2005 6.27 6.20 6.18 6.01 3.58 3.56 47.08% 44.57%
2006 6.04 6.25 5.92 6.03 3.50 3.49 46.65% 46.33%
2007 6.15 6.29 5.96 6.05 3.49 3.43 46.97% 48.07%
2008 6.49 6.48 6.31 6.28 3.33 3.36 50.94% 49.79%
2009 6.68 6.66 6.52 6.53 3.29 3.30 53.49% 51.48%
2010 6.85 6.86 6.72 6.78 3.32 3.33 53.58% 53.14%
2011 7.10 7.05 6.78 6.76 3.38 3.37 51.54% 53.58%
2012 6.90 7.05 6.72 6.74 3.40 3.40 56.49% 54.02%
2013 7.08 7.04 6.75 6.72 3.32 3.36 - 54.45%
2014 6.87 7.03 6.62 6.70 3.34 3.31 - 54.88%
2015 7.27 7.02 6.82 6.68 3.30 3.27 - 55.31%
2016 7.14 7.01 6.82 6.67 3.22 3.22 - 55.74%
2017 6.80 7.00 6.46 6.65 3.16 3.18 - 56.17%

New cases come from SEER 13. Deaths come from U.S. Mortality.
All Races, Both Sexes. Rates are Age-Adjusted.
Modeled trend lines were calculated from the underlying rates using the Joinpoint Trend Analysis Software.

New cases are also referred to as incident cases in other publications. Rates of new cases are also referred to as incidence rates.


Rate of New Cases and Deaths per 100,000: The rate of new cases of myeloma was 7.0 per 100,000 men and women per year. The death rate was 3.3 per 100,000 men and women per year. These rates are age-adjusted and based on 2013–2017 cases and deaths.

Lifetime Risk of Developing Cancer: Approximately 0.8 percent of men and women will be diagnosed with myeloma at some point during their lifetime, based on 2015–2017 data.

Prevalence of This Cancer: In 2017, there were an estimated 140,779 people living with myeloma in the United States.

Survival Statistics

How Many People Survive 5 Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Myeloma?

Relative survival is an estimate of the percentage of patients who would be expected to survive the effects of their cancer. It excludes the risk of dying from other causes. Because survival statistics are based on large groups of people, they cannot be used to predict exactly what will happen to an individual patient. No two patients are entirely alike, and treatment and responses to treatment can vary greatly.

53.9%

5-Year
Relative Survival

53.9%

Based on data from SEER 18 2010–2016. Gray figures represent those who have died from myeloma. Green figures represent those who have survived 5 years or more.

Survival by Stage

Cancer stage at diagnosis, which refers to extent of a cancer in the body, determines treatment options and has a strong influence on the length of survival. In general, if the cancer is found only in the part of the body where it started it is localized (sometimes referred to as stage 1). If it has spread to a different part of the body, the stage is regional or distant. For myeloma, 4.6% are diagnosed at the local stage. The 5-year relative survival for localized myeloma is 74.8%.

Percent of Cases & 5-Year Relative Survival by Stage at Diagnosis: Myeloma
Stage Percent of Cases 5-Year Relative Survival
Localized
Confined to Primary Site
5% 74.8%
Regional
Spread to Regional Lymph Nodes
0% 0.0%
Distant
Cancer Has Metastasized
95% 52.9%
Unknown
Unstaged
0% 76.8%

SEER 18 2010–2016, All Races, Both Sexes by SEER Summary Stage 2000

New Cases and Deaths

How Common Is This Cancer?

Compared to other cancers, myeloma is relatively rare.

Rank Common Types of Cancer Estimated New
Cases 2020
Estimated
Deaths 2020
1. Breast Cancer (Female) 276,480 42,170
2. Lung and Bronchus Cancer 228,820 135,720
3. Prostate Cancer 191,930 33,330
4. Colorectal Cancer 147,950 53,200
5. Melanoma of the Skin 100,350 6,850
6. Bladder Cancer 81,400 17,980
7. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 77,240 19,940
8. Kidney and Renal Pelvis Cancer 73,750 14,830
9. Uterine Cancer 65,620 12,590
10. Leukemia 60,530 23,100
- - -
14. Myeloma 32,270 12,830

Myeloma represents 1.8% of all new cancer cases in the U.S.

1.8%

In 2020, it is estimated that there will be 32,270 new cases of myeloma and an estimated 12,830 people will die of this disease.

Who Gets This Cancer?

Although a rare disease, myeloma is more common in men than women and among individuals of African American descent. Risk is higher among those with a history of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). The rate of new cases of myeloma was 7.0 per 100,000 men and women per year based on 2013–2017 cases, age-adjusted.

Rate of New Cases per 100,000 Persons by Race/Ethnicity & Sex: Myeloma
Males
All Races 8.8
White 8.2
Black 16.5
Asian/Pacific Islander 5.0
American Indian/Alaska Native 6.7
Hispanic 8.2
Non-Hispanic 8.9
Females
All Races 5.7
White 5.0
Black 12.0
Asian/Pacific Islander 3.2
American Indian/Alaska Native 5.0
Hispanic 5.7
Non-Hispanic 5.7

SEER 21 2013–2017, Age-Adjusted

Percent of New Cases by Age Group: Myeloma
Age Range Percent of New Cases
<20 0.0%
20–34 0.5%
35–44 2.7%
45–54 10.5%
55–64 22.9%
65–74 30.8%
75–84 23.3%
>84 9.4%

Myeloma is most frequently diagnosed among people aged 65–74.

Median Age
At Diagnosis

69

SEER 21 2013–2017, All Races, Both Sexes

Who Dies From This Cancer?

Myeloma is the fourteenth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The death rate was 3.3 per 100,000 men and women per year based on 2013–2017 deaths, age-adjusted.

Death Rate per 100,000 Persons by Race/Ethnicity & Sex: Myeloma
Males
All Races 4.1
White 3.9
Black 7.5
Asian/Pacific Islander 2.0
American Indian/Alaska Native 3.6
Hispanic 3.4
Non-Hispanic 4.2
Females
All Races 2.6
White 2.4
Black 5.3
Asian/Pacific Islander 1.2
American Indian/Alaska Native 3.0
Hispanic 2.2
Non-Hispanic 2.6

U.S. 2013–2017, Age-Adjusted

Percent of Deaths by Age Group: Myeloma
Age Range Percent of Deaths
<20 0.0%
20–34 0.1%
35–44 0.8%
45–54 4.8%
55–64 15.0%
65–74 28.2%
75–84 32.1%
>84 19.2%

The percent of myeloma deaths is highest among people aged 75–84.

Median Age
At Death

75

U.S. 2013–2017, All Races, Both Sexes

Trends in Rates

Changes Over Time

Keeping track of new cases, deaths, and survival over time (trends) can help scientists understand whether progress is being made and where additional research is needed to address challenges, such as improving screening or finding better treatments.

Using statistical models for analysis, age-adjusted rates for new myeloma cases have not changed significantly over the last 10 years. Age-adjusted death rates have not changed significantly over 2008–2017. 5-year relative survival trends are shown below.

Interactive Statistics with SEER*Explorer

With SEER*Explorer, you can...
  • Create custom graphs and tables
  • Download data and images
  • Share links to results

SEER*Explorer is an interactive website that provides easy access to a wide range of SEER cancer statistics. It provides detailed statistics for a cancer site by gender, race, calendar year, age, and for a selected number of cancer sites, by stage and histology.

Explore Additional Myeloma Statistics

More About This Cancer

Myeloma

Figure: Myeloma Cells

Figure: A Myeloma cell (abnormal plasma cell) making M proteins. M proteins are antibodies created by a Myeloma cell.

This type of cancer begins in plasma cells (white blood cells that produce antibodies). It is also called Kahler disease, myelomatosis, and plasma cell myeloma. Plasma cells are white blood cells that make antibodies. Antibodies are part of the immune system. They work with other parts of the immune system to help protect the body from germs and other harmful substances. Each type of plasma cell makes a different antibody.

Myeloma begins when a plasma cell becomes abnormal. The abnormal cell divides to make copies of itself. These abnormal plasma cells are called myeloma cells.

In time, myeloma cells collect in the bone marrow. They may damage the solid part of the bone. When myeloma cells collect in several of your bones, the disease is called "multiple myeloma." This disease may also harm other tissues and organs, such as the kidneys.

Myeloma cells make antibodies called M proteins and other proteins. These proteins can collect in the blood, urine, and organs.

Additional Information

More Information

Here are some resources for learning more about myeloma.

References

All statistics in this report are based on statistics from SEER and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. Most can be found within:

Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Miller D, Brest A, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Mariotto A, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2017, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2017/, based on November 2019 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2020.

Suggested Citation

All material in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

SEER Cancer Stat Facts: Myeloma. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/mulmy.html

These stat facts focus on population statistics that are based on the U.S. population. Because these statistics are based on large groups of people, they cannot be used to predict exactly what will happen to an individual patient. To see tailored statistics, browse the SEER Cancer Statistics Review. To see statistics for a specific state, go to the State Cancer Profiles.

The statistics presented in these stat facts are based on the most recent data available, most of which can be found in the SEER Cancer Statistics Review. In some cases, different year spans may be used.

Estimates of new cases and deaths for 2020 are projections made by the American Cancer Society (ACS), based on earlier reported data.

Cancer is a complex topic. There is a wide range of information available. These stat facts do not address causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, follow-up care, or decision making, although links are provided to information in many of these areas.