Statistics at a Glance

At a Glance

Estimated New Cases in 2018 6,190

% of All New Cancer Cases 0.4%

Estimated Deaths in 2018 1,200

% of All Cancer Deaths 0.2%

Percent Surviving
5 Years

71.0% 2008-2014
Year New Cases - SEER 9 New Cases - SEER 13 Deaths - U.S. Percent Surviving 5 Years - SEER 9
1975 2.1 - 0.5 75.1%
1976 2.1 - 0.5 69.3%
1977 2.3 - 0.5 75.2%
1978 1.8 - 0.5 74.8%
1979 2.1 - 0.5 76.8%
1980 1.9 - 0.5 77.1%
1981 1.9 - 0.5 72.9%
1982 2.1 - 0.4 72.7%
1983 2.0 - 0.5 68.9%
1984 2.2 - 0.4 72.1%
1985 2.0 - 0.5 70.4%
1986 2.2 - 0.4 74.8%
1987 1.9 - 0.4 73.1%
1988 2.4 - 0.4 73.2%
1989 2.1 - 0.4 72.2%
1990 2.7 - 0.4 73.1%
1991 2.2 - 0.4 79.1%
1992 2.1 2.1 0.5 70.3%
1993 2.1 2.1 0.5 78.4%
1994 2.2 2.2 0.4 75.8%
1995 2.2 2.1 0.5 71.8%
1996 2.3 2.2 0.4 81.0%
1997 2.4 2.3 0.4 77.7%
1998 2.4 2.4 0.4 82.0%
1999 2.6 2.4 0.5 76.8%
2000 2.3 2.2 0.4 78.2%
2001 2.4 2.3 0.5 74.9%
2002 2.3 2.1 0.5 69.3%
2003 2.5 2.3 0.4 76.5%
2004 2.2 2.1 0.5 77.7%
2005 2.2 2.1 0.5 76.4%
2006 2.4 2.2 0.5 71.6%
2007 2.3 2.3 0.5 74.0%
2008 2.5 2.3 0.5 67.8%
2009 2.6 2.3 0.5 79.8%
2010 2.5 2.4 0.5 71.9%
2011 2.4 2.3 0.5 -
2012 2.5 2.3 0.5 -
2013 2.6 2.4 0.5 -
2014 2.6 2.5 0.5 -
2015 2.5 2.2 0.5 -

Number of New Cases and Deaths per 100,000: The number of new cases of vulvar cancer was 2.5 per 100,000 women per year. The number of deaths was 0.5 per 100,000 women per year. These rates are age-adjusted and based on 2011-2015 cases and deaths.

Lifetime Risk of Developing Cancer: Approximately 0.3 percent of women will be diagnosed with vulvar cancer at some point during their lifetime, based on 2013-2015 data.

Survival Statistics

How Many People Survive 5 Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Vulvar Cancer?

Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients diagnosed with cancer with the survival of people in the general population who are the same age, race, and sex and who have not been diagnosed with cancer. Because survival statistics are based on large groups of people, they cannot be used to predict exactly what will happen to an individual patient. No two patients are entirely alike, and treatment and responses to treatment can vary greatly.

71.0%

Percent Surviving
5 Years

71.0%

Based on data from SEER 18 2008-2014. Gray figures represent those who have died from vulvar cancer. Green figures represent those who have survived 5 years or more.

Additional Information

Survival by Stage

Cancer stage at diagnosis, which refers to extent of a cancer in the body, determines treatment options and has a strong influence on the length of survival. In general, if the cancer is found only in the part of the body where it started it is localized (sometimes referred to as stage 1). If it has spread to a different part of the body, the stage is regional or distant. The earlier vulvar cancer is caught, the better chance a person has of surviving five years after being diagnosed. For vulvar cancer, 59.3% are diagnosed at the local stage. The 5-year survival for localized vulvar cancer is 86.3%.

Percent of Cases & 5-Year Relative Survival by Stage at Diagnosis: Vulvar Cancer
Stage Percent of Cases 5-Year Relative Survival
Localized
Confined to Primary Site
59% 86.3%
Regional
Spread to Regional Lymph Nodes
30% 53.3%
Distant
Cancer has Metastasized
6% 18.6%
Unknown
Unstaged
5% 58.7%

SEER 18 2008-2014, All Races, Females by SEER Summary Stage 2000

Additional Information

Number of New Cases and Deaths

How Common Is This Cancer?

Compared to other cancers, vulvar cancer is rare.

Rank Common Types of Cancer Estimated New
Cases 2018
Estimated
Deaths 2018
1. Breast Cancer (Female) 266,120 40,920
2. Lung and Bronchus Cancer 234,030 154,050
3. Prostate Cancer 164,690 29,430
4. Colorectal Cancer 140,250 50,630
5. Melanoma of the Skin 91,270 9,320
6. Bladder Cancer 81,190 17,240
7. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 74,680 19,910
8. Kidney and Renal Pelvis Cancer 65,340 14,970
9. Uterine Cancer 63,230 11,350
10. Leukemia 60,300 24,370
- - -
28. Vulvar Cancer 6,190 1,200

Vulvar cancer represents 0.4% of all new cancer cases in the U.S.

0.4%

In 2018, it is estimated that there will be 6,190 new cases of vulvar cancer and an estimated 1,200 people will die of this disease.

Who Gets This Cancer?

Vulvar cancer is rare. It is more common among women with a medical history of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, or genital warts. The number of new cases of vulvar cancer was 2.5 per 100,000 women per year based on 2011-2015 cases.

Number of New Cases per 100,000 Persons by Race/Ethnicity: Vulvar Cancer
Males
All Races Sex-specific cancer type
White
Black
Asian/Pacific Islander
American Indian/Alaska Native
Hispanic
Non-Hispanic
Females
All Races 2.5
White 2.7
Black 1.7
Asian/Pacific Islander 0.9
American Indian/Alaska Native 2.1
Hispanic 1.7
Non-Hispanic 2.6

SEER 18 2011-2015, Age-Adjusted

Percent of New Cases by Age Group: Vulvar Cancer
Age Range Percent of New Cases
<20 0.1%
20-34 1.7%
35-44 5.2%
45-54 14.5%
55-64 20.6%
65-74 22.0%
75-84 21.1%
>84 14.8%

Vulvar cancer is most frequently diagnosed among women aged 65-74.

Median Age
At Diagnosis

68

SEER 18 2011-2015, All Races, Females

Who Dies From This Cancer?

For vulvar cancer, death rates increase with age. The number of deaths was 0.5 per 100,000 women per year based on 2011-2015.

Number of Deaths per 100,000 Persons by Race/Ethnicity: Vulvar Cancer
Males
All Races Sex-specific cancer type
White
Black
Asian/Pacific Islander
American Indian/Alaska Native
Hispanic
Non-Hispanic
Females
All Races 0.5
White 0.6
Black 0.3
Asian/Pacific Islander 0.1
American Indian/Alaska Native Not Shown, <16 cases
Hispanic 0.4
Non-Hispanic 0.5

U.S. 2011-2015, Age-Adjusted

Percent of Deaths by Age Group: Vulvar Cancer
Age Range Percent of Deaths
<20 0.0%
20-34 0.6%
35-44 1.6%
45-54 7.4%
55-64 13.4%
65-74 19.0%
75-84 28.0%
>84 30.0%

The percent of vulvar cancer deaths is highest among women aged 85+.

Median Age
At Death

78

U.S. 2011-2015, All Races, Females

Trends in Rates

Changes Over Time

Keeping track of the number of new cases, deaths, and survival over time (trends) can help scientists understand whether progress is being made and where additional research is needed to address challenges, such as improving screening or finding better treatments.

Using statistical models for analysis, rates for new vulvar cancer cases have been rising on average 0.6% each year over the last 10 years. Death rates have been rising on average 1.2% each year over 2006-2015. 5-year survival trends are shown below.

More About This Cancer

Cancer and the Vulva

Vulvar cancer forms in a woman's external genitalia. The vulva includes:

  • Inner and outer lips of the vagina.
  • Clitoris (sensitive tissue between the lips).
  • Opening of the vagina and its glands.
  • Mons pubis (the rounded area in front of the pubic bones that becomes covered with hair at puberty).
  • Perineum (the area between the vulva and the anus)

Vulvar cancer most often affects the outer vaginal lips. Less often, cancer affects the inner vaginal lips, clitoris, or vaginal glands.

Vulvar cancer usually forms slowly over a number of years. Abnormal cells can grow on the surface of the vulvar skin for a long time. This condition is called vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). Because it is possible for VIN to become vulvar cancer, it is very important to get treatment.

Additional Information

More Information

Here are some resources for learning more about vulvar cancer.

References

All statistics in this report are based on statistics from SEER and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. Most can be found within:

Noone AM, Howlader N, Krapcho M, Miller D, Brest A, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Mariotto A, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2015, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2015/, based on November 2017 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2018.

Suggested Citation

All material in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

SEER Cancer Stat Facts: Vulvar Cancer. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/vulva.html

These stat facts focus on population statistics that are based on the U.S. population. Because these statistics are based on large groups of people, they cannot be used to predict exactly what will happen to an individual patient. To see tailored statistics, browse the SEER Cancer Statistics Review. To see statistics for a specific state, go to the State Cancer Profiles.

The statistics presented in these stat facts are based on the most recent data available, most of which can be found in the SEER Cancer Statistics Review. In some cases, different year spans may be used. Estimates for the current year are based on past data.

Cancer is a complex topic. There is a wide range of information available. These stat facts do not address causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, follow-up care, or decision making, although links are provided to information in many of these areas.