Statistics at a Glance

At a Glance

Estimated New Cases in 2020 6,120

% of All New Cancer Cases 0.3%

Estimated Deaths in 2020 1,350

% of All Cancer Deaths 0.2%

5-Year
Relative Survival

70.4% 2010–2016
Year Rate of New Cases — SEER 9 Rate of New Cases — SEER 13 Death Rate — U.S. 5-Year Relative Survival — SEER 9
Observed Modeled Trend Observed Modeled Trend Observed Modeled Trend Observed Modeled Trend
1975 2.12 2.02 - - 0.54 0.53 75.72% 75.65%
1976 2.11 2.03 - - 0.51 0.52 70.19% 75.62%
1977 2.33 2.04 - - 0.51 0.51 76.64% 75.59%
1978 1.82 2.06 - - 0.50 0.50 75.05% 75.56%
1979 2.12 2.07 - - 0.47 0.49 77.75% 75.53%
1980 1.92 2.08 - - 0.46 0.47 77.81% 75.50%
1981 1.90 2.09 - - 0.48 0.46 73.12% 75.47%
1982 2.11 2.11 - - 0.44 0.45 73.32% 75.44%
1983 2.04 2.12 - - 0.46 0.44 69.36% 75.41%
1984 2.16 2.13 - - 0.42 0.43 73.17% 75.38%
1985 1.99 2.14 - - 0.45 0.43 71.19% 75.35%
1986 2.15 2.16 - - 0.43 0.43 75.54% 75.32%
1987 1.93 2.17 - - 0.41 0.43 73.42% 75.28%
1988 2.44 2.18 - - 0.43 0.44 73.16% 75.25%
1989 2.09 2.20 - - 0.41 0.44 73.53% 75.22%
1990 2.67 2.21 - - 0.44 0.44 73.79% 75.19%
1991 2.22 2.22 - - 0.44 0.44 80.00% 75.16%
1992 2.13 2.24 2.08 2.14 0.47 0.44 70.69% 75.13%
1993 2.09 2.25 2.07 2.15 0.46 0.44 78.84% 75.10%
1994 2.18 2.26 2.16 2.16 0.44 0.44 76.41% 75.07%
1995 2.21 2.28 2.14 2.17 0.48 0.44 72.54% 75.04%
1996 2.32 2.29 2.17 2.18 0.43 0.45 81.37% 75.01%
1997 2.44 2.31 2.33 2.19 0.42 0.45 78.32% 74.98%
1998 2.40 2.32 2.36 2.20 0.45 0.45 82.07% 74.94%
1999 2.57 2.33 2.37 2.21 0.46 0.45 77.80% 74.91%
2000 2.27 2.35 2.18 2.22 0.45 0.45 78.59% 74.88%
2001 2.44 2.36 2.30 2.23 0.45 0.45 75.59% 74.85%
2002 2.33 2.38 2.11 2.24 0.46 0.45 69.92% 74.82%
2003 2.48 2.39 2.30 2.25 0.45 0.46 77.28% 74.79%
2004 2.25 2.40 2.11 2.26 0.46 0.46 78.50% 74.76%
2005 2.21 2.42 2.11 2.27 0.45 0.46 77.17% 74.72%
2006 2.43 2.43 2.21 2.28 0.47 0.47 71.73% 74.69%
2007 2.33 2.45 2.27 2.29 0.47 0.47 75.05% 74.66%
2008 2.48 2.46 2.32 2.30 0.49 0.48 68.34% 74.63%
2009 2.59 2.48 2.33 2.31 0.50 0.49 80.48% 74.60%
2010 2.51 2.49 2.39 2.32 0.48 0.50 72.65% 74.57%
2011 2.39 2.51 2.29 2.33 0.52 0.51 75.11% 74.54%
2012 2.51 2.52 2.33 2.34 0.52 0.52 74.01% 74.50%
2013 2.61 2.54 2.37 2.35 0.49 0.52 - 74.47%
2014 2.67 2.55 2.51 2.36 0.52 0.53 - 74.44%
2015 2.52 2.57 2.28 2.37 0.53 0.54 - 74.41%
2016 2.48 2.59 2.29 2.38 0.56 0.55 - 74.38%
2017 2.70 2.60 2.46 2.39 0.57 0.56 - 74.35%
2018 - - - - 0.59 0.57 - 74.31%

New cases come from SEER 13. Deaths come from U.S. Mortality.
All Races, Females. Rates are Age-Adjusted.
Modeled trend lines were calculated from the underlying rates using the Joinpoint Trend Analysis Software.

New cases are also referred to as incident cases in other publications. Rates of new cases are also referred to as incidence rates.


Rate of New Cases and Deaths per 100,000: The rate of new cases of vulvar cancer was 2.6 per 100,000 women per year. The death rate was 0.6 per 100,000 women per year. These rates are age-adjusted and based on 2013–2017 cases and 2014–2018 deaths.

Lifetime Risk of Developing Cancer: Approximately 0.3 percent of women will be diagnosed with vulvar cancer at some point during their lifetime, based on 2015–2017 data.

Survival Statistics

How Many People Survive 5 Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Vulvar Cancer?

Relative survival is an estimate of the percentage of patients who would be expected to survive the effects of their cancer. It excludes the risk of dying from other causes. Because survival statistics are based on large groups of people, they cannot be used to predict exactly what will happen to an individual patient. No two patients are entirely alike, and treatment and responses to treatment can vary greatly.

70.4%

5-Year
Relative Survival

70.4%

Based on data from SEER 18 2010–2016. Gray figures represent those who have died from vulvar cancer. Green figures represent those who have survived 5 years or more.

Survival by Stage

Cancer stage at diagnosis, which refers to extent of a cancer in the body, determines treatment options and has a strong influence on the length of survival. In general, if the cancer is found only in the part of the body where it started it is localized (sometimes referred to as stage 1). If it has spread to a different part of the body, the stage is regional or distant. The earlier vulvar cancer is caught, the better chance a person has of surviving five years after being diagnosed. For vulvar cancer, 59.8% are diagnosed at the local stage. The 5-year relative survival for localized vulvar cancer is 85.5%.

Percent of Cases & 5-Year Relative Survival by Stage at Diagnosis: Vulvar Cancer
Stage Percent of Cases 5-Year Relative Survival
Localized
Confined to Primary Site
60% 85.5%
Regional
Spread to Regional Lymph Nodes
28% 50.6%
Distant
Cancer Has Metastasized
6% 20.3%
Unknown
Unstaged
6% 65.3%

SEER 18 2010–2016, All Races, Females by SEER Summary Stage 2000

New Cases and Deaths

How Common Is This Cancer?

Compared to other cancers, vulvar cancer is rare.

Rank Common Types of Cancer Estimated New
Cases 2020
Estimated
Deaths 2020
1. Breast Cancer (Female) 276,480 42,170
2. Lung and Bronchus Cancer 228,820 135,720
3. Prostate Cancer 191,930 33,330
4. Colorectal Cancer 147,950 53,200
5. Melanoma of the Skin 100,350 6,850
6. Bladder Cancer 81,400 17,980
7. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 77,240 19,940
8. Kidney and Renal Pelvis Cancer 73,750 14,830
9. Uterine Cancer 65,620 12,590
10. Leukemia 60,530 23,100
- - -
28. Vulvar Cancer 6,120 1,350

Vulvar cancer represents 0.3% of all new cancer cases in the U.S.

0.3%

In 2020, it is estimated that there will be 6,120 new cases of vulvar cancer and an estimated 1,350 people will die of this disease.

Who Gets This Cancer?

Vulvar cancer is rare. It is more common among women with a medical history of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, or genital warts. The rate of new cases of vulvar cancer was 2.6 per 100,000 women per year based on 2013–2017 cases, age-adjusted.

Rate of New Cases per 100,000 Persons by Race/Ethnicity: Vulvar Cancer
Males
All Races Sex-specific cancer type
White
Black
Asian/Pacific Islander
American Indian/Alaska Native
Hispanic
Non-Hispanic
Females
All Races 2.6
White 2.8
Black 1.8
Asian/Pacific Islander 0.9
American Indian/Alaska Native 1.6
Hispanic 1.8
Non-Hispanic 2.7

SEER 21 2013–2017, Age-Adjusted

Percent of New Cases by Age Group: Vulvar Cancer
Age Range Percent of New Cases
<20 0.1%
20–34 1.5%
35–44 4.6%
45–54 13.7%
55–64 20.2%
65–74 23.5%
75–84 21.1%
>84 15.4%

Vulvar cancer is most frequently diagnosed among women aged 65–74.

Median Age
At Diagnosis

69

SEER 21 2013–2017, All Races, Females

Who Dies From This Cancer?

For vulvar cancer, death rates increase with age. The death rate was 0.6 per 100,000 women per year based on 2014–2018, age-adjusted.

Death Rate per 100,000 Persons by Race/Ethnicity: Vulvar Cancer
Males
All Races Sex-specific cancer type
White
Black
Asian/Pacific Islander
American Indian/Alaska Native
Hispanic
Non-Hispanic
Females
All Races 0.6
White 0.6
Black 0.3
Asian/Pacific Islander 0.1
American Indian/Alaska Native Not Shown, <16 cases
Hispanic 0.3
Non-Hispanic 0.6

U.S. 2014–2018, Age-Adjusted

Percent of Deaths by Age Group: Vulvar Cancer
Age Range Percent of Deaths
<20 0.0%
20–34 0.4%
35–44 1.4%
45–54 6.2%
55–64 14.2%
65–74 21.2%
75–84 27.0%
>84 29.7%

The percent of vulvar cancer deaths is highest among women aged 85+.

Median Age
At Death

77

U.S. 2014–2018, All Races, Females

Trends in Rates

Changes Over Time

Keeping track of new cases, deaths, and survival over time (trends) can help scientists understand whether progress is being made and where additional research is needed to address challenges, such as improving screening or finding better treatments.

Using statistical models for analysis, age-adjusted rates for new vulvar cancer cases have been rising on average 0.6% each year over 2008–2017. Age-adjusted death rates have been rising on average 1.7% each year over 2009–2018. 5-year relative survival trends are shown below.

Interactive Statistics with SEER*Explorer

With SEER*Explorer, you can...
  • Create custom graphs and tables
  • Download data and images
  • Share links to results

SEER*Explorer is an interactive website that provides easy access to a wide range of SEER cancer statistics. It provides detailed statistics for a cancer site by gender, race, calendar year, age, and for a selected number of cancer sites, by stage and histology.

Explore Additional Vulvar Cancer Statistics

More About This Cancer

Cancer and the Vulva

Vulvar cancer forms in a woman's external genitalia. The vulva includes:

  • Inner and outer lips of the vagina.
  • Clitoris (sensitive tissue between the lips).
  • Opening of the vagina and its glands.
  • Mons pubis (the rounded area in front of the pubic bones that becomes covered with hair at puberty).
  • Perineum (the area between the vulva and the anus)

Vulvar cancer most often affects the outer vaginal lips. Less often, cancer affects the inner vaginal lips, clitoris, or vaginal glands.

Vulvar cancer usually forms slowly over a number of years. Abnormal cells can grow on the surface of the vulvar skin for a long time. This condition is called vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). Because it is possible for VIN to become vulvar cancer, it is very important to get treatment.

Additional Information

More Information

Here are some resources for learning more about vulvar cancer.

References

All statistics in this report are based on statistics from SEER and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. Most can be found within SEER*Explorer.

Suggested Citation

All material in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

SEER Cancer Stat Facts: Vulvar Cancer. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/vulva.html

These stat facts focus on population statistics that are based on the U.S. population. Because these statistics are based on large groups of people, they cannot be used to predict exactly what will happen to an individual patient. To see tailored statistics, browse SEER*Explorer. To see statistics for a specific state, go to the State Cancer Profiles.

The statistics presented in these stat facts are based on the most recent data available, most of which can be found in SEER*Explorer. In some cases, different year spans may be used.

Estimates of new cases and deaths for 2020 are projections made by the American Cancer Society (ACS), based on earlier reported data.

Cancer is a complex topic. There is a wide range of information available. These stat facts do not address causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, follow-up care, or decision making, although links are provided to information in many of these areas.